Ppi chemistry

Proton Pump Inhibitor - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Ruben Vardanyan, Victor Hruby, in Synthesis of Best-Seller Drugs, 2016. Rabeprazole-Aciphex. Rabeprazole (37.6) is another proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat conditions requiring a reduction of gastric acid secretion, such as erosive or ulcerative gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonerosive reflux disease, duodenal and gastric ulcers, and other pathological hypersecretory conditions.
  2. What does PPI mean in Chemistry? 13 meanings of PPI abbreviation related to Chemistry: Any category. Technology. Business
  3. al surface of the ATPase. Click to see full answer
  4. al stage in gastric acid secretion, being directly responsible for secreting H + ions into the gastric lumen, making it an ideal target for inhibiting acid.
  5. Now the proton-pump inhibitor drugs (PPIs) have eclipsed the H2 blockers as the most commonly prescribed agents for problems that can be fixed — or at least ameliorated — by reducing stomach acid levels. PPIs include heavily marketed and therefore familiar brand-name drugs like Prevacid (lansoprazole), Prilosec (omeprazole), and Nexium.
  6. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is a prodrug which is activated by acid. Activated PPI binds covalently to the gastric H +, K +-ATPase via disulfide bond. Cys813 is the primary site responsible for the inhibition of acid pump enzyme, where PPIs bind. Omeprazole was the first PPI introduced in market, followed by pantoprazole, lansoprazole and.

PPI Chemistry Abbreviation - All Acronym

Address. Polymer Processing Institute. 218 Central Avenue. GITC Building Suite 1201. Newark, NJ 0710 In chemistry, pyrophosphates are phosphorus oxyanions that contain two phosphorus atoms in a P-O-P linkage. A number of pyrophosphate salts exist, such as disodium pyrophosphate (Na 2 H 2 P 2 O 7) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na 4 P 2 O 7), among others.Often pyrophosphates are called diphosphates. The parent pyrophosphates are derived from partial or complete neutralization of. Taking a PPI once a day inhibits around 70% of proton pumps, so a small amount of acid is still available for food digestion. PPIs may be used for the treatment of: Acid reflux, also called gastroesophageal reflux disease ; Conditions characterized by an overproduction of stomach acid (such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Apart, from selling the amine terminated PPI-dendrimers in research sample quantities, SyMO-Chem can provide you with other custom-made PPI-based dendrimers. It is also possible to set up a contract research project in the PPI-dendrimer chemistry field. Prices and Quantities. Typical (and minimum) quantities and corresponding actual prices are Perry Plastics Inc. (PPi) Innovative Textile Chemistry - Our People. Irving Laub has over 30 years experience supplying. chemicals to the textile, paper and adhesives industries, primarily with polyvinyl alcohol. Irving's commitment to. Perry Chemicals' quality, integrity and service provided the. foundation for strong relationships with. Pyro is Greek for fire or heat. It's a historical name because in the early days of chemistry they didn't know that it was a diphosphate. H[math]_3[/math]PO[math]_4[/math] hydrogen phosphate Diphosphate can be formed by 2 molecules of phosphate th..

Looking for online definition of PPI or what PPI stands for? PPI is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionar A multidisciplinary team at Boston University, led by Associate Professor of Chemistry Adrian Whitty, aims to develop new approaches for challenging molecular targets. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences awarded this team a 4-year, $1.6 million grant entitled Design of Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the NEMO/IKKα/β Protein-Protein. How is Pyrophosphate (inorganic chemistry) abbreviated? PPi stands for Pyrophosphate (inorganic chemistry). PPi is defined as Pyrophosphate (inorganic chemistry) very frequently

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Producer Price Index: PPI: Protein-Protein Interactions: PPi: Pyrophosphate (inorganic chemistry) PPI: Private Participation in Infrastructure: PPI: Pre-Purchase Inspection: PPI: Patient and Public Involvement (healthcare) PPI: Public Policy Institute (AARP) PPI: Professional Publications, Inc. (Belmont, CA) PPI: Pulp and Paper Industry: PPI. Proton Pump Inhibitor Adverse effects Short-term The common adverse effects include: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, and dizziness. Because the body uses gastric acid to release vitamin B12 from food particles, decreased vitamin B12 absorption may occur with long-term use of PPIs, and may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency. 14 PPI Learning Hub: The Learning Hub is more than an eLearning platform—it is a time-tested program that guides examinees through their exam prep from start to finish. Learn More. Exam Details for the FE Exam. The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam is a computer-based test that can be taken year round. The FE exam is 110 questions which. PPI users had less diversity in their gut bacteria. PPI users had an increased amount of potentially pathogenic gut bacteria. In addition to this research, For instance, the Annals of Gastroenterology explains that your gut bacteria play a role in regulating your brain chemistry,. Biology PPI abbreviation meaning defined here. What does PPI stand for in Biology? Get the top PPI abbreviation related to Biology

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dpi-Ppi bonding easy || 1st sem inorganic || Msc chemistry sem1 notesinorganic chemistry which is asked in previous year paper#inorganic_chemistry_sem1pdf -(.. In this work, we proposed a new fluorescent assay for PPi and PPase activity detection based on the competitive coordination chemistry of Fe 3+ between PPi and an in situ formed fluorescent polydopamine (PDA) Along the PPI interface, if a residue mutated to alanine with the PPI binding energy differing for more than 2 kcal/mol, it is defined as a hot spot. The area of hot spots are considered to be only about 600 Å 2 ( Lo Conte et al., 1999 )

What is PPi chemistry? - AskingLot

Proton-pump inhibitor - Wikipedi

Omeprazole, often referred to by its American trade name Prilosec, is a drug used to treat digestive system conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. In 1989, Astra AB (now AstraZeneca) began to market it as the first commercial proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Omeprazole and other PPIs block the release of. PPI intends to revise this technical report within five years, or sooner if required, from the date of its publication, in response to comments and suggestions from users of the document. Please send suggestions of improvements to the address below. Information on other publications can be obtained by contacting PPI directly or visiting our. The Producer Price Index for final demand increased 1.0 percent in June, seasonally adjusted, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Final demand prices rose 0.8 percent in May and 0.6 percent in April. (See table A.) On an unadjusted basis, the final demand index moved up 7.3 percent for the 1 If you are suitable for stepping down or stepping off PPI treatment, your doctor will discuss with you which approach would suit you best: 1. Take when needed treatment You only take a PPI occasionally when you have symptoms. 2. Short courses of treatment If your symptoms return, a short course of PPI may be prescribed for two to four. PPI for final demand advances 0.6% in April, goods and services both rise 0.6%. 05/13/2021. The Producer Price Index for final demand increased 0.6 percent in April, as prices for both final demand services and final demand goods also rose 0.6 percent. The final demand index advanced 6.2 percent for the 12 months ended in April

250 First Avenue, Suite 300 Needham, MA 02494 P: 781.972.5400 F: 781.972.5425 E: chi@healthtech.co However, drug-like 14-3-3 PPI stabilizers enabling such studies have remained elusive. An X-ray crystal structure of a PPI in complex with an extremely low potency stabilizer uncovered an unexpected non-protein interacting, ligand-chelated Mg 2+ leading to the discovery of metal-ion-dependent 14-3-3 PPI stabilization potency Motivation Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are key elements in numerous biological pathways and the subject of a growing number of drug discovery projects including against infectious diseases. Designing drugs on PPI targets remains a difficult task and requires extensive efforts to qualify a given interaction as an eligible target. To this end, besides the evident need to determine the. PPI's are drugs which reduce gastric acid production in the stomach. These are commonly prescribed for GERD and for gastric ulcers. According to Medicine-net.com this is how they work: proton pump inhibitors reduce the production of acid by blocking the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid. The reduction of acid prevents. Proton pump inhibitors side effects. Most people who take a PPI do not have any side-effects. However, side-effects occur in a small number of users. The most common side-effects are: Constipation. Diarrhoea. Wind (flatulence) Headaches

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Proton-Pump Inhibitors - Harvard Health Publications

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are key therapeutic targets. Most PPI-targeting drugs in the clinic inhibit these important interactions; however, stabilising PPIs is an attractive alternative in cases where a PPI is disrupted in a disease state. The discovery of novel PPI stabilisers has been hindered due to t 2021 ChemSci Pick of the Week Collection 2021 Chemical Science HOT Article. Pyrophosphate (PPi) is a byproduct of DNA and RNA synthesis, and abnormal levels are indicative of disease. We report the high-affinity binding of PPi in water by N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene chloride receptors.Experimental analysis using 1 H and 31 P NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry, mass spectrometry, and UV-vis spectroscopy all support exceptional selectivity of these systems for PPi. However, a number of molecules are in development which target PPI within the replisome, divisome, transcriptome and translatome are showing significant promise at the medicinal chemistry stage of drug development. Hence, the success of future PPI agents as antibiotics will build upon the techniques and design strategies of these molecules With administrative offices located in Dallas, Texas, The Plastics Pipe Institute Inc. (PPI) is the major trade association representing all segments of the plastics piping industry. PPI members share a common interest in broadening awareness and creating opportunities that expand market share and extend the use of plastics pipe in all its many. Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. It only takes a minute to sign up. PPi is inorganic pyrophosphate, O2 is oxygen, CO2 is carbondioxide. Looking at the last equation, it seems it is possible to form ATP as a product, as it is on the right side.

At the same time, we use chemistry to design synthetic molecules that disrupt the dysregulated forms of PPI communication to further understand the underlying biology and treat disease. We apply NMR and MRI, to visualize biomolecular interactions, and use small molecules that we synthesize in the laboratory to perturb the protein function EC-2,3-g-PPI n copolymers are prepared via click chemistry of copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition, and confirmed by high-resolution 1 H and 13 C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Download PPI PE Civil Practice Problems, 16th Edition - Comprehensive Practice for the NCEES PE Civil Exam or Read PPI PE Civil Practice Problems, A Comprehensive Reference Source on the Chemistry of the Earth (Encycl. Download Encyclopedia of Geochemistry: A Comprehensive Reference Source on the Chemistry of the Earth (Encycl PDF eBook. Nonpeptide Peptidomimetics PPI library - 22,000 compounds. Eccentric PPI Library - 13,000 compounds. Cyclic Ugi PPI Library - 10,000 compounds. Alpha-Helix Mimetics Library - 24,737 Compounds. Peptidomimetics of Beta-Turn Motifs Library - 2,679 compounds. Macrocycles Library - 3,300 compounds

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Proton Pump

At the same time we use chemistry to design synthetic molecules that disrupt the dysregulated forms of PPI communication to further understand the underlying biology. We apply NMR, and in future experiments MRI, to visualize biomolecular interactions, and use small molecules that we synthesize in the laboratory to perturb the protein function A fluorescent chemosensor based on a quinoline derivative, L2 (OFF state), selectively senses Zn2+ by effective chelate-enhanced fluorescence (ON state), which further shows selectivity toward PPi over competing anions like Pi, AMP, and ATP via fluorescence quenching (OFF state) in a 100% aqueous HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). A plausible mode for the selective binding of PPi to 1 has been. Prilosec (omeprazole) is a proton pump inhibitor that treats severe stomach acid-related conditions like GERD. Common Prilosec side effects include headache, stomach pain and nausea. Long-term Prilosec use has been linked to kidney damage, bone fractures and other dangerous side effects

4. views. 11 Dec 2019. <p>The Keq of the adenyl cyclase reaction (ATP ->cyclic AMP +PPi) was found to be 0.065. If the delta G' for ATP hydrolysis to AMP +PPi is taken to be -8000cal/mole, calculate delta G' of cyclic AMP hydrolysis (to 5'-AMP). </p>. Answer + 20 hello guys , this video is for all jee 2021 aspirants . i have listed out all the chapters which are easy and important for jee mains 2021 and can easily be. Start studying Chemistry. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Chemistry is the science that deals with the structure, properties and transformations of the bodies based on their composition. Questions. Academic integrity cyclic AMP +PPi) was found to be 0.065. If the delta G' for ATP hydrolysis to AMP +PPi is taken to be -8000cal/mole, calculate delta G' of cyclic AMP hydrolysis (to 5'-AMP). </p. Statement-1. `BF_(3)` is a weaker Lewis acid than `BCl_(3)`. Statement-2. The `ppi-ppi` back bonding is stronger in `BF_(3)` than in `BCl_(3)`

`{:(,Column IColumn II),((A),B_(2)H_(6),(p),Borax),((B),BF_(3),(q),Lewis acid),((C ),AlCl_(3),(r ),ppi-ppi back bonding ),((D),H_(3)BO_(3),(s),N Triglycerides. Triglycerides (TG) are lipid compounds consisting of a glycerol (a 3-carbon molecule containing three hydroxyl groups) backbone esterified to three long chain fatty acids. Triglycerides are a vital energy source for cells. Circulation of triglycerides through the vasculature is achieved by the incorporation of these compounds. PPI stands for Pixels Per Inch.That is, how many little electronic pixels of light can a digital display fit into one inch? At a minimum, many (older) displays used to have 72 PPI, however, now with higher and higher resolution display screens from retina etc. phone displays to 4K and 8K computer displays and TVs, pixel density (PPI) has soared to measurements of over 200 PPI and even. PDF MCE-18 Trends in Medicinal Chemistry 50,820 compounds. The paradigm of drug likeness dramatically altered the behavior of the medicinal chemistry community for a long time. In recent years, scientists have empirically found a significant increase in key properties of drugs that have moved structures closer to the periphery or the.

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ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties are crucial for understanding the safety and efficacy of a drug candidate, increasing the likelihood of a successful program. DMPK (drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics) properties of the product determine how much of the drug will reach the target, and the duration it will stay in the target area The Department of Chemistry offers several degree options for graduate students: Master's-level students may pursue an MS in Chemistry or MS in Medicinal Chemistry. Doctoral-level students may pursue a PhD in Chemistry or PhD in Medicinal Chemistry. Undergraduate students are eligible for the combined BS/MS in Medicinal Chemistry

PPI2PASS & School of PE (FE Exam): Reviews + Alternatives. Below you can find a free video-lecture alternative to School of PE and PPI2PASS FE exam prep services. In addition, we present an analysis of School of PE and PPI2PASS prep classes Assess hx of osteoporosis Lansoprazole PPI GERD, ulcer, erosive esophagitis. allergy • Capsules can be opened & mixed (not crushed) w/ apple juice for NG tube Omeprazole PPI Esophagitis, Duodenal ulcer. allergy Give 30-60 min before meals - Take capsule WHOLE, cannot be opened etc. Pantoprazole GERD, ulcer, stress ulcer prophylaxis A proton pump inhibitor + two antibiotics + bismuth Clarithromycin Amoxicillin Bismuth subsalicylate. Proton Pump Inhibition Histamine Histamine H 2 receptor antagonists Acetylcholine Muscarinicantagonists Gastrin Parietal Cell Proton pump inhibitors Olbe, L. et al. Nature reviews , drug discovery , 2003 , 2, 132-139 K

2:05 Non-Catalytic Site Integrase Inhibitors: Interrogating a PPI Target via Virtual and Fragment Screening. Douglas C. Beshore, Ph.D., Project Leader, Exploratory Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories. The quest for novel mechanisms for the treatment of HIV remains a world-wide public health objective Baran Group Meeting 11/05/2016 Fumihiko Toriyama Practical Process Chemistry 1) Process Chemistry generally refers to the design and development of synthetic routes for the chemicals, in particular pharmaceutical relavant molecules, which ultimately be applocable to manufacturing on commercial scale These fragments, generally, exhibit weak affinity for the PPI. Novel leads are then designed from the 'hit' fragments via fragment growth, combination or merging. This presentation seeks to explore how fragment based drug discovery strategies are used to design novel potent small molecule inhibitors of PPIs Background: Inorganic pyrophosphate-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPi-PEPCK) was unidentified.Results: A conserved hypothetical protein was annotated as PPi-PEPCK.Conclusion: PPi-PEPCK arose independently from the functional homologs ATP/GTP-PEPCKs and PEP carboxylase.Significance: Identification of PPi-PEPCK reveals the wide distribution of this enzyme and accelerates understanding.

Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ Find number of ppi - dpi bonds in(a) Disulphate (b) triphosphate (c) trimetaphosphate (d) trimer of SO3 (e) P4O10 (f) P4O6. Join / Login > 12th > Chemistry > The p-Block Elements > Group 15 Element Shrinkage or elongation after Processing Let , PPI (Picks per inch) before processing :- 66 PPI (Pick... Textile chemistry RECIPE OF SAMPLE FOR OEKO TEX CERTIFICATE Image:- Process table This recipe details show for 1 meter 100% Cotton fabric Customers globally rely on our extensive range of products and services— from life-saving medicines to lab essentials to next-generation instruments.Our Operations team leverages our PPI (Practical Process Improvement Business System) to manufacture and produce these products and continuously improve productivity and quality all while contributing to our Mission - to enable our customers to. 25 years experience and 2500 customers worldwide. Premium R&D CRO based in USA with global reach. Seasoned project managers. Extensive Academic partnerships. Flexible business models. Industry's largest ever-greening stock compound inventory. Ongoing investments in novel proprietary chemistry and discovery platforms. Learn More About Us

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Interaction information for human proteins was from the Human Protein References Database (HPRD), release 7_20070901 [].The PPI data for yeast, Drosophila, E. coli, and C. elegans were from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP), version DIP_20070219 [].After removing protein pairs that contained a protein of less than 50 amino acids, 37027 PPIs remained in the dataset for humans, 5943 for. Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng / PPI (on SDS) English term or phrase: PPI (on SDS) Hola: (PPI) on the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) with regard to Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS). Factors examined are usually reactivity, flammability, personal protection etc PPI drugs target proton pumps in the stomach. These tiny pumps cause a chemical reaction that produces stomach acid. PPIs limit the amount of acid the pumps produce. PPIs shut down pumps in the stomach that produce excess acid. The body absorbs proton pump inhibitors into the bloodstream. From there, they send signals to the acid-forming cells. Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition in which food or liquid moves up from the stomach to the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). Treat a duodenal or stomach (gastric) ulcer. Treat damage to the lower esophagus caused by acid reflux

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Pyrophosphate - Wikipedi

PPI FE Other Disciplines Practice Problems - Comprehensive Practice for the Other Disciplines FE Exam [Lindeburg PE, Michael R.] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. PPI FE Other Disciplines Practice Problems - Comprehensive Practice for the Other Disciplines FE Exa Surprisingly, many of these PPI clinical candidates have efficiency metrics typical of lead-like or drug-like molecules and are orally available. Successful discovery efforts have integrated multiple disciplines and make use of all the modern tools of target-based discovery—structure, computation, screening, and biomarkers Watch Ppi - Ppi Bonding in English from Valence Bond Theory and Orbital Overlap Concept here. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here The size of the PPI-SDS complex is larger than that of PAMAM-SDS at higher SDS concentrations. Within the investigated SDS concentrations, SDS exhibits much stronger interactions with G3 PPI than with G3 PAMAM. These results provide new insights into dendrimer-surfactant interactions and explain why PPI is much more cytotoxic than PAMAM oping PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. Introductio

List of Proton Pump Inhibitors + Uses, Side Effects

H2 antagonist and ppi. The H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells (specifically the histamine H2 receptors) in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs): are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting. Proton Pump Inhibitors Definition The proton pump inhibitors are a group of drugs that reduce the secretion of gastric (stomach) acid. They act by binding with the enzyme H+, K(+)-ATPase, hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase, which is sometimes referred to as the proton pump. This enzyme causes parietal cells of the stomach lining to produce acid. PPI // Potassium Phosphite $ 75.00 - $ 135.99 SELECT SIZE. Product categories. Liquid Fertilizers (26) Peptide Products (11) Fulvic Acid Products (4) Phosphorous & Potassium (7) Micronutrient Packages (10) Specialty Chemistry (5) Phosphites (1) Silica (2) Nitrogen Products (3) Complete Foliar Fertilizers with Peptides (5) Biostimulants (8

Poly(propylene imine) dendrimers - SyMO-Che

Inspiration from Fluorination: Chemistry at the Biological Interface. Overview: Using chemical and biological approaches, our research seeks to understand the details of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with a focus on improving our knowledge of macromolecular recognition events. The impact of such findings will aid development of new. Exam Topics Covered Chemical Reaction Chemistry Computational Tools Engineering Engineering Sciences Ethics and Professional Practice Fluid Mechanics/Dynamics Heat Transfer Ma This book is part of a comprehensive learning management system designed to help you pass the FE exam the first time Chemistry & Physics Technology Cannabis Sciences The study found no significant increase in MD visits or hospitalization rates for upper GI diseases after PPI use reduction. Of note, researchers cautioned that this intervention to reduce overprescribing of PPIs also reduced appropriate prescription in some cases

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chemistry_semester_1_exam_review_answers 2/4 Chemistry Semester 1 Exam Review Answers Read Online Chemistry Semester 1 Exam Review Answers Organic Chemistry as a Second Language-David R. Klein 2011-07-12 Readers continue to turn to Klein because it enables them to better understand fundamental principles, solve problems, and focus on what they need to know to succeed The Pei Group specializes in utilizing macrocycles to target therapeutically-relevant, conventionally-challenging protein-protein interactions (PPI) by synergizing medicinal and combinatorial peptide chemistry. Read Mor Digital image resolution unit conversion between pixel/millimeter and pixel/inch, pixel/inch to pixel/millimeter conversion in batch, pixel/mm ppi conversion char

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Difference between Sigma and Pi bond What is Sigma bond? Sigma bonds are bonds between atoms within molecules formed along the axis connecting the bound nuclei of the atoms. Molecular bonds Molecules form when atoms exchange or share electrons through chemical bonding. There are essentially three types of bonds. Ionic bonds, metallic bonds, and covalent bonds Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling (or Suzuki coupling) is a metal catalyzed reaction, typically with Pd, between an alkenyl (vinyl), aryl, or alkynyl organoborane (boronic acid or boronic ester, or special cases with aryl trifluoroborane) and halide or triflate under basic conditions. This reaction is used to create carbon-carbon. Currently, research is focussed on developing chemical biology approaches that will allow us to meet this challenge. My interests lie in molecules that act at a given PPI interface and thus (might) act like a 'molecular glue'. Underpinned by synthetic organic chemistry, two core research avenues focus on: i) enhancing our molecular. Bio. Dehua Pei obtained his B.S. Degree in Chemistry from Wuhan University, China in 1986 and his Ph.D. Degree in organic chemistry from University of California, Berkeley in 1991, working under the direction of Peter G. Schultz. After a postdoctoral stint with Christopher T. Walsh at Harvard Medical School, he joined the faculty at OSU in 1995. The Chemistry PhD program requires 72 credit hours beyond the bachelor's degree with a minimum 18 credit hours of electives in the chosen sub-discipline, an original research project, and dissertation presentation. A maximum of 24 credit hours may be transferred for students that have completed an approved MS degree program